Assessment of Textbook Outcome After Surgery for Stage I/II Non-small Cell Lung Cancer

      Outcomes after cancer resection are traditionally measured individually. Composite metrics, or textbook outcomes, bundle outcomes into a single value to facilitate assessments of quality. We propose a composite outcome for non–small cell lung cancer resections, examine factors associated with the outcome, and evaluate its effect on overall survival. We queried the National Cancer Database for patients with stage I/II non-small cell lung cancer who underwent sublobar resection, lobectomy, or pneumonectomy from 2010 to 2016. We defined the metric as margin-negative resection, sampling of ≥10 lymph nodes, length of stay <75th percentile, no 30-day mortality, no readmission, and receipt of indicated adjuvant therapy. Multivariable logistic regression, Cox proportional hazards modeling, survival analyses, and propensity score matching were used to identify factors associated with the outcome and overall survival. Of 88,208 patients, 70,149 underwent lobectomy, 14,922 underwent sublobar resection, and 3,137 underwent pneumonectomy. Textbook outcome was achieved in 26.3% of patients. Failure to achieve the outcome was most commonly driven by inadequate nodal assessment. Textbook outcome was more likely after minimally invasive surgical approaches (aOR = 1.47; P< 0.001) relative to open resection and less likely after sublobar resection (aOR = 0.20; P< 0.001) relative to lobectomy. Achievement of textbook outcome was associated with an 9.6% increase in 5-year survival (P< 0.001), was independently associated with improved survival (aHR = 0.72; P < 0.001), and remained strongly associated with survival independent of resection extent after propensity matching. One in 4 patients undergoing non-small cell lung cancer resection achieve textbook outcome. Textbook outcome is associated with improved survival and has value as a quality metric.




      LOS (Length of stay), NSCLC (Non-small cell lung cancer), US (United States), TO (Textbook outcome), NCDB (National Cancer Database), CoC (Commission on Cancer), MIS (Minimally invasive surgery)
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