Abbreviations:CBFi (cerebral blood flow index), CBF (cerebral blood flow), CBV (cerebral blood volume), CHD (congenital heart disease/defect), CICU (cardiac intensive care unit), CHOP (The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia), CMRO2 (cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen), CW-NIRS (continuous-wave near infrared spectroscopy), DCS (diffuse correlation spectroscopy), FD-DOS (frequency-domain diffuse optical spectroscopy), FD-NIRS (frequency-domain near infrared spectroscopy), Hb (deoxyhemoglobin, measured with DOS), HbO2 (oxyhemoglobin, measured with DOS), Hct (hematocrit, measured from blood gas), Hgb (hemoglobin, measured from blood gas), HLHS (hypoplastic left heart syndrome), IQR (interquartile range), OEF (cerebral oxygen extraction fraction), SpO2 (peripheral capillary oxygen saturation), ScO2 (cerebral tissue oxygen saturation), WMI (white matter injury)
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All procedures were approved by the Institutional Review Board (11-008191, initially approved August 08, 2011).
Parents were approached for consent after birth and prior to day of surgery.
Funding sources: This study was supported by the NIH Grant Nos. NS-072338, NS-060653, HL-007954, HL-007915, P41-EB015893, the Thrasher Research Foundation, and the June and Steve Wolfson Family foundation.
Conflicts of Interest: Arjun G. Yodh has his name is on four patents submitted on behalf of the Trustees of the University of Pennsylvania related to this work: US20190000321, US10064554, US20140343384, US8082015 but does not generate income.