Abbreviations:DCA (Deoxycholic acid), DGEA (Duodeno-gastroesophageal anastomosis), EAC (Esophageal adenocarcinoma), ELISA (Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay), FBS (Fetal bovine serum), GAPDH (Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase), H&E (Hematoxylin and eosin), ICAM-1 (Intercellular adhesion molecule-1), IL-8 (Interleukin 8), LPS (Lipopolysaccharide), PBS (Phosphate-buffered saline), TLR (Toll-like receptor), TLR4 (Toll-like receptor 4), VCAM-1 (Vascular cell adhesion molecule-1)
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Institutional Review Board Approval: Our animal protocol was approved by the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee at the University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus (protocol #00893, approved 4/16/2019).
Funding: This work was funded by the University of Colorado School of Medicine Department of Surgery, Division of Cardiothoracic Surgery.
Conflicts of Interest: The authors have no conflicts of interest to disclose.
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- Commentary: Does Toll Play the Sole Role?Seminars in Thoracic and Cardiovascular SurgeryVol. 34Issue 4
- PreviewGastro esophageal reflux has been associated with esophageal cancer as well as benign complications such as peptic strictures. With new concerns being raised about the safety of long term use high dose PPI as well as limited longevity of anti-reflux procedures, investigation into alternative pathways to mitigate the deleterious effect of gastro-esophageal reflux is most welcome.
- Commentary: Choosing the Right Model for Bile Reflux Induced Esophageal Disease ResearchSeminars in Thoracic and Cardiovascular SurgeryVol. 34Issue 4
- PreviewEsophageal cancer has a high mortality and poor prognosis. The incidence of esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC), the most common form of this cancer in the United States, has dramatically risen in recent years.1 Chronic exposure of the esophagus to gastroduodenal intestinal fluid is an important determinant factor in the development of Barrett's esophagus (BE), which is closely associated with the development of EAC.2 Although the close relationship between bile reflux and EAC has been well established, little is known about the mechanisms that link bile acids to esophageal carcinogenesis due to a lack of reliable models.